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Citing and referencing

Citing and referencing is how you acknowledge the articles, books and other resources used when creating academic work. In-text citations show which source you are referring to. A reference list at the end of your work gives the full details of the source so the reader can find it again.

Accurate citing and referencing:

  • is good academic practice
  • enhances the presentation of your work
  • can improve your marks

Always check referencing advice in your programme and module handbooks, and check with your lecturer if you are in any doubt.

Help with citing and referencing

Cite them right online

Find out how to

  • reference books, journals, articles, websites and other materials
  • understand how to avoid plagiarisn,

Includes guidance and examples of Harvard and other referencing styles.


An online reference management tool. Keep track of your research, create bibliographies and share references with others.

Login instructions and advice on using RefWorks are available on our Library Guide.

Subject and Research Librarians

Our referencing experts can offer help via email or make an appointment. You can also read our referencing guide.

Citing and referencing in your department

Your school or department will recommend which style you should use in your work. Check your programme and module handbooks to ensure you use the correct style.

Harvard is the most commonly used style at City. Harvard is used in the School of Health Sciences and the Business School plus a few departments in other schools. The City Law School uses OSCOLA. Other styles in use at City include APA, Chicago and MHRA. You can find help for all these styles in Cite them right online.