Collection Development Policy
- Users & access
- Acqusition of resources
- Alternatives to acquisition
- 4.1 City Research Online
- 4.2 Inter-Library Loans
- 4.3 Access to other libraries and resources
- 4.4 Donations & sponsorships
- Collection analysis, retention and withdrawal
- 5.1 Online resources
- 5.2 Print resources
- 5.3 Multiple editions
- 5.4 Disposal
- 5.5 Stock checks
- 5.6 Circulation management and loan periods
- 5.7 Digital course readings - continued access
- 5.8 Preservation and binding
- Related documents and webpages
The core purpose for developing a Collection Development Policy is to ensure there is a clear relationship between the investment decisions and operations in Library Services and the overall strategy, goals and objectives of City, University of London.
Library Services, which is situated over three locations and is managed centrally, provides a dedicated, professional, integrated and responsive service to each of City’s six Schools.
Library Services aims to develop appropriate collections in support of education and research, and to strengthen the Library’s collections in support of City's Research Strategy and the City Vision and Strategy 2030. The purpose of the Collection Development Policy is to inform Library staff and users of the criteria and principles that will be used in the acquisition, management and disposal of resources, which include the following:
- printed books and journals
- online resources (databases, online journals and e-books)
- journal archives
- digital course readings
- audio-visual material
- streaming videos
- music scores
This policy also describes how access to, currency and maintenance of these resources will be achieved within agreed priorities and subject to constraints on funding and space.
The Collection Development Policy will be reviewed annually and updated when appropriate, or as and when the Library Leadership Team considers it necessary.
Any enquiries relating to the Collection Development Policy should be directed to [email protected].
2. Users & access
The Library collections are developed with the aim of supporting the education and research of its users. Full details of borrowing entitlements can be found on our website. The users of the collections are:
Current staff and students of City
Current staff and students are entitled to access all of the Library’s resources, except for a small number of specialist resources which are only available to certain user groups due to licence restrictions. Please see our Distance Learning Support Policy for more information as there are some differences with entitlements.
Students on validated courses and City partnerships
Students on validated courses or from partner institutions and any staff involved in their instruction are entitled to access the print collections. Remote access to specified online resources is by arrangement only. Online resources, where the licences permit, are accessible from dedicated PC terminals.
Short course students
Short course students may access the print collections. Online resources, where the licences permit, are accessible from dedicated PC terminals.
Alumni may access the print collection and those online resources where licences permit, from dedicated PC terminals. Remote access to a limited selection of online resources is available through the Alumni Online Community.
Members of reciprocal access schemes (e.g. SCONUL Access)
Users may access the print collections. Online resources, where the licences permit, are accessible from dedicated PC terminals.
Library Services will maximise the availability of print and online collections to all authorised users as far as licensing conditions or other restrictions permit.
Access to online resources
Online resources are licenced to City for authorised users of Library Services. Adherence to licence and contract agreements are enforced through the use of authentication and user management systems.
For further information see our Online Resource Policy.
Library Services will utilise nationally negotiated licences and agreements to maximise the effective use of and access to resources. Library Services will also endeavour to make our online collections accessible on multiple devices and provide simultaneous multiple user access where funds, technology and licences allow.
Access to resources through CityLibrary Search supports the education and research priorities of City. Library Services will make all of its resources easily discoverable to our users, using single search functionality where possible.
Library Services integrates discovery and delivery, enriches content, and improves search and navigation tools to enhance discovery of our collections, utilising innovative support systems and services.
Library Services is committed to ensuring that all our authorised users are able to access and utilise all of the Library collections. Designated staff are available to work with students with accessibility needs to effect this use.
Library users requiring specific accessibility services will need to be referred to Library Services by the Disability Team. Individual support for these services can then be offered to students in order to maximise discovery and use of our collections.
3. Acquisition of resources
Southern University Purchasing Consortium (SUPC) approved suppliers and nationally negotiated licences for online resources, via the Joint Information Services Consortium (JISC) and the Combined Higher Education Software Team (Eduserv CHEST), will be used to source online resources. Library Services cannot purchase e-books from non-standard e-book suppliers.
Access to our online resources is determined by legally binding contracts that are signed when entering into an agreement with a publisher or provider. These are agreed on a national basis with such bodies as Eduserv CHEST and JISC or agreed between Library Services and the resource provider where no national agreements exist. Library Services will negotiate for the best value and access terms possible in line with the JISC and Eduserv models.
SUPC approved suppliers provide printed book stock that is shelf-ready; this ensures economies of scale, minimises administrative overheads and takes advantage of consortia discounts.
From the date of the initial order, printed books will be made available on the Library shelves within 3-4 weeks from receipt of the order (for all items in stock with suppliers). The advantages of purchasing shelf-ready books will usually preclude the use of suppliers such as Amazon or other online booksellers. Out of print material will be sourced when it is economically viable to do so. Fast-tracking of orders is not possible.
E-books are generally available within one week from receipt of the order. Online resources such as journals and databases will generally be made available within 4-8 weeks of the order being placed with the supplier.
Library Services is dependent on external suppliers, and there may be occasions when the fulfilment of orders will take longer than average.
An annual allocation for the purchase of all Library resources is made from City funds. This allocation is based on the student FTE figure for the School and/or previous historical spend.
Schools may supplement this devolved allocation with additional funds to enable the purchase of additional resources.
The division of the final allocation between material types (journals, databases, books) will be dependent on the scholarly needs of the individual Schools and be suitable for a research institution of City's size.
A percentage of the annual allocation is top-sliced to be spent at the discretion of Library Services on cross discipline print and online resources. Allocations which are unspent at the end of May will be returned to central Library funds and used to purchase resources from Library Services' Desiderata list.
3.3 Selection and purchase
The selection of resources is the joint responsibility of Library Services and Academic Staff. The responsibility for spending allocations lies with Subject Librarians, and is based on the requirements of the course reading lists, and to support research and education.
In addition, Subject Librarians actively identify gaps in the collections, and will acquire resources accordingly to supplement the Library collections.
Content rather than format will principally determine the stock selection decisions.
Although Library Services will decide upon the most appropriate format for resources, the online format is preferred. E-books are purchased in preference to print as these allow 24/7 access. However, their purchase will depend on their availability from publishers, technological accessibility and cost. Library Services cannot purchase electronic companion materials to print textbooks due to the additional cost and complex administration involved.
There are circumstances where printed formats are necessary, either instead of or to complement online access. For example where:
- the online version is not available for purchase by libraries as is the case with most core textbooks
- the online version has restrictive usage conditions such as limits on viewing, printing or copying through digital rights management software, or limits on the number of simultaneous users
- the online version does not replicate adequately all the content of the print version
- cost is a factor.
As part of our commitment to delivering value for money, Library Services will not purchase print editions of resources which are freely available online.
Unless otherwise specified, the latest editions of recommended books will be purchased.
Paperbacks will be purchased in preference to hardbacks.
As a general rule Library Services will not purchase foreign language titles.
Resources not on reading lists will be considered for purchase where they are linked to education and research activities.
All items purchased will form part of and circulate within library collections. Library Services will not purchase copies of items for individual use. Academic staff should request inspection copies directly from publishers.
Library Services will maintain collections to enhance the student experience, for example, by providing collections which support career development and study skills, as well as equality and diversity, wellbeing and leisure.
Library Services will initiate and utilise user-led purchasing models to enhance our collections. Current schemes include More Books, Read for Research and Liberating CityLibrary.
Library Services cannot guarantee the continued availability of some e-books in the collection or the ability to purchase additional licences to satisfy high demand.
No library can meet the information needs of all its users from its own resources, and this Collection Development Policy includes details of alternatives to acquisition.
Accessibility of resources is a procurement priority for Library Services. Library Services aims to purchase resources which are designed inclusively and enable all students and staff to access the same resource, independently, and at the same time. Resources which support accessibility have benefits to everyone but are vital to disabled users.
Accessibility considerations will be factored in when selecting resources. Library Services will:
- check third-party web platforms are compliant with WCAG 2.1 at AA level. This is a legal responsibility for Public Sector organizations.
Where this is not possible Library Services will:
- work with suppliers to achieve greater accessibility
- communicate where web content presents access barriers for users, and when and how barriers can be mitigated
- ensure there is an action plan for providing accessible alternatives which provide a compatible experience.
To enable this work, Library Services have provided guidance for staff on:
- including accessibility in initial procurement steps
- evaluating accessibility risk and impact
- working with suppliers
- prioritising accessible formats where there is a choice.
The Alternative Formats Policy outlines arrangements for obtaining and creating alternative formats when a commercially available accessible version is not available.
3.5 Reading lists and multiple copies
Reading lists are a key component of the student experience and all Schools are required to submit reading lists to Library Services when requested to do so by the relevant Subject Librarian.
City uses Reading Lists Online (RLO) for the submission and management of all items on reading lists. Reading lists will be embedded in Moodle and provide students with quick and easy access to books, e-books, journal articles and websites recommended for their modules.
All purchase requests should be accompanied by sufficient information to enable Subject Librarians to purchase appropriately, e.g. course module details, the number of students on the course, and whether it is essential or background reading. For further information please see the Reading List Policy.
Library Services will liaise with Academic Staff where the price of a resource is considered excessive or when items are unavailable for acquisition.
It is recommended that books highlighted as "essential reading" are purchased at a maximum ratio of 1:15 students. This ratio may be adjusted if a specific request is made by a School or department, or when sufficient demand is demonstrated. This ratio applies collectively to both print and online formats.
Where demand is demonstrated to be high, Library Services will take appropriate action including changing the loan periods of existing copies, ordering additional copies or making digital course readings available.
Library Services will monitor e-book turnaway statistics and use this information to inform the purchase of additional e-book licences.
Copies will be allocated to locations and loan types to allow for maximum usage. Based on previous usage statistics, the advice of Academic Staff and other relevant factors, Library Services will decide the most appropriate loan category for resources on reading lists.
Whenever practicable and when funds allow, at least one copy of every item listed as essential reading on a reading list will be obtained by Library Services.
3.6 Digital course readings
Digitised extracts must be managed within Reading Lists Online. They must not be uploaded to Moodle.
Requests for digitisations are made via Reading Lists Online. All digitisations must comply with the terms and conditions of the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) Higher Education Licence. Guidance on the terms and conditions can be found in the Reading Lists Online Library Guide and in the User Guidelines from the CLA.
3.7 Subscription resources
Library Services carries out regular analysis of licences, access/authentication issues and usage statistics to ensure that our online resource collections best support current and future education and research needs.
When purchasing journals, an online format is preferred to print due to the increased access this provides. Library Services will aim to purchase journal content on a perpetual access model.
Proposals for new subscriptions should be made via the Library Academic Services Team. Library Services will not consider new subscriptions unless it can ensure the additional financial commitment is sustainable. New subscriptions will be considered based on supporting the education and research priorities of City.
Library Services will review usage versus costs of online resource subscriptions regularly, and consider any possible cancellations.
4. Alternatives to acquisition
4.1 City Research Online
Library Services provides access to research produced by City's staff and research students via our institutional repository City Research Online (CRO). CRO includes full-text open access versions and bibliographic records of research outputs authored by staff and research students at City.
The following list summarises the types of research that CRO contains:
- articles - accepted and submitted versions
- articles - published version (where publishers' copyright policies allow)
- book chapters
- conference papers
- doctoral theses
- working papers (where these form part of an approved School series)
- other types of research, as requested by users of the service.
4.2 Inter-Library Loans
An Inter-Library Loans service is offered which is subsidised by Library Services. This allows users to request material which is not held by Library Services. A small handing charge is applied to all requests.
Library Services will not process requests for print material when the electronic format is available to users.
4.3 Access to other libraries and resources
Information on using other libraries can be found on the Library Services website.
City is part of the University of London and this allows staff and students access to Senate House Library, the central library for the University of London. City students and staff can apply online for access to Senate House Library using a pre-registration form. When they register, they will have remote access to Senate House online resources.
Library provision at other University of London Federation Libraries is based on the SCONUL Access Scheme. A full overview can be found on our University of London libraries and institutions webpage.
City Library Services is part of the Society of College, National and University Libraries (SCONUL) Access Scheme. The SCONUL Access Scheme allows staff and students to use for reference purposes, and in some cases borrow from, the libraries of member institutions in the UK and Ireland.
City Library Services is a member of the M25 Consortium of Academic Libraries. The M25 Access and Borrowing Scheme allows staff and students to use other member libraries of the M25 consortium, including some that are not part of the SCONUL Access Scheme. A list can be found on the M25 Consortium website.
There are a large number of academic, public, and specialist libraries to be found in London, many of which allow visitors from other institutions to use their collections. Details of these can be found on our Using other libraries section on our website.
Library Hub Discover combines the library catalogues of many other UK and Irish libraries, including the national libraries, many university libraries, and specialist research libraries.
There are a number of archives in London that can be used for research purposes, and a list of these can be found on the AIM25 (Archives in London and the M25 area) website.
4.4 Donations & sponsorships
Library Services welcomes donations which enhance its ability to fulfil the Collection Development Policy, and appreciates the generosity of donors.
Donations are accepted on the understanding that they become the property of Library Services, and any items not required will be disposed of appropriately. Suitability of donations will be assessed by the appropriate Subject Librarian. Journals will not be accepted.
Library Services will assume that donors are aware of these guidelines. Priority for adding items to stock will usually be given to purchased resources.
A small number of databases are made available via sponsorship, which are the result of separately negotiated agreements with database suppliers. Resources acquired in this way are evaluated by Library Services, and are deemed to complement and enhance existing resources.
5. Collection analysis, retention and withdrawal
It is the aim of Library Services to maintain dynamic collections which reflect the subject focus of courses and research in our Schools and departments, whilst encouraging effective spending of acquisitions budgets and maximum use of our collections. At the same time Library Services has adopted a "zero-growth" model regarding print resources, in which the service will aim to withdraw at least as many volumes each year as are added, due to the limited estate and lack of space to expand the collections.
5.1 Online resources
Online resources subscriptions (i.e. subscriptions to online journal titles, database packages and e-book collections) are reviewed on a regular basis and decisions are taken in advance of renewal deadlines for budgeting purposes. Library Service Heads and Subject Librarians liaise with Schools over the suitability of subscriptions and renewals.
The criteria for continuing an existing subscription is based on:
- level of usage
- inclusion on reading lists
- course dependency
- changes in the subject areas offered by Schools
- journal ranking
- present share of the total budget devoted to online resource subscriptions.
For further information please see our Value for Money Policy.
The ultimate constraint is the funds available and the maintenance of an adequate budget to be spent on book purchases.
For online journals, the most recent data available on the number of successful full-text article requests for a journal title are collected. Of available, these reports are taken from the Journal Usage Statistics Portal (JUSP). This data complies with the COUNTER code of practice to ensure consistency across data providers. If a publisher has not joined JUSP, usage data will be obtained direct from the publisher, where available. This data may not be COUNTER compliant.
Where available, database and e-book usage data will be obtained from the publisher or supplier or via aggregated service JUSP. For databases, this typically includes the total searches and search results viewed for the current subscription year. For e-books, the number of successful title requests and the number of successful section (i.e. chapter or part) requests from an e-book title during the academic year are collected.
5.2 Print resources
To inform withdrawal decisions, statistical analysis of the print collection is carried out annually to identify those items published more than 10 years previously, purchased longer than five years previous, and which have not been borrowed for at least five years. This data is collated from the Library Management System. This initial data is reviewed by the appropriate Subject Librarian to consider whether the item should be withdrawn from stock.
Considerations for withdrawal include:
- availability in other formats (e.g. as an online resource)
- number of copies held
- relevance to current or planned education or research
- physical condition.
Subject Librarians may choose to consult Academic Staff on the withdrawal of certain print resources (such as those which could potentially be of interest at research level). Print resources may be retained at the request of Academic Staff in the following cases:
- older editions may be kept where they contain information that is not in later editions but is still used for education purposes
- Academic Staff may identify individual items to their Subject Librarians which should be retained despite meeting the withdrawal criteria. However, a specific reason for their retention must be provided in each case
- single copies of certain titles may be retained to support research and enhance the Library's research collections, for example, content which may serve as a potential primary source in historical research.
Print journals and reference books currently held will be regularly evaluated. The decision to withdraw will be based on their relevance to current or planned education or research. In addition, online and print journals, and online and print reference resources, will be reviewed annually for duplication. Where sustainable electronic access is available, the print resources will be withdrawn.
Library Services is a contributing member of the UK Research Reserve (UKRR). UKRR is a collaborative and coordinated approach between Higher Education Libraries and the British Library to manage the long-term sustainability of retaining low-use print journals across the UK. Print journals identified for withdrawal will be cross-checked with UKRR and provided to member libraries if required.
5.3 Multiple editions
Up to the two most recent editions of books (regardless of format or library location) will be held by Library Services, with older editions being withdrawn. This may be adjusted in agreement with individual Schools or departments, where currency is more or less critical.
Withdrawn print book stock is collected by a designated supplier. If these items are sold within three months, Library Services receives a share of the profits and this money is reinvested in the collections. Items that are not sold are recycled.
5.5. Stock checks
Stock checks will be undertaken at every library location every 3-5 years. Exact timings will be dependent on any new building and refurbishment plans, and whether a service-wide or staggered approach is adopted. Stock checks will be timed to ensure the minimal disruption to users.
5.6 Circulation management and loan periods
Reservation reports, generated by the Library Management System on a regular basis, identify the titles which have a high number of reservation requests. This data is passed to the appropriate Subject Librarians for consideration of the following:
- changing items to shorter loan periods
- purchase of additional copies
- requesting that a chapter is digitised
- requesting an extract (up to 10% of item) is digitised.
When a new edition is purchased, and previous editions are to be retained, those with a short loan period will be changed to longer loans, and reference copies of previous editions will be changed to circulation copies.
Loan periods will be reviewed when items are removed from reading lists.
5.7 Digital course readings - continued access
As mentioned in the digital course readings section (3.5) of this Policy, it is possible to digitise items to be accessed from Reading Lists Online. When these digital course readings are required for courses in the subsequent academic year, they can be carried over.
Checks are made to ensure continued compliance with the terms of City's Copyright Licensing Agency licence. Academic Staff will be asked to indicate which digital course readings they require for the next year, and will be provided with usage statistics on which decisions can be based. Those no longer required will be removed from Reading Lists Online.
5.8 Preservation and binding
Library Services takes the following steps to preserve and bind print journals:
- complete volumes of permanently retained journal issues will be bound on a case-by-case basis
- where cost effective, less durable materials may be bound before they are added to the collections
- materials in poor condition may be repaired or replaced at the discretion of Library staff.
With regards to online journals:
- measures will be taken to build a collection of online journal archives through additional funding streams which may become available
- City Library Services participates in Portico, an online resource preservation service, in order to ensure (subject to the terms of relevant licenses, subscription agreements and publisher participation) that Library Services' online resources are safeguarded in the event of interruption to the service.
6. Related documents and webpages
For guidance on the following specific areas, please see the links below:
Information about the Library Services Archive and Special Collection can be found at libguides.city.ac.uk/archives
The Library Services Archive and Special Collections Policy can be found at
City Vision and Strategy 2030
City Research Online (CRO)
Guidance on policy and procedure for CRO can be found at libguides.city.ac.uk/openaccess
Guidance on deposit of e-theses in CRO can be found at libguides.city.ac.uk/oa-theses
Digital Course Readings
Information on digital course readings.
Distance Learning Policy
Library Services membership
Information on membership (including details of how to apply for alumni membership, external membership, SCONUL membership and staff membership).
Library Services for users with disabilities or learning differences
Further information is available from our Library Guide for Accessibility.
Online Resource Policy
Reading Lists Online
Academic staff should provide reading lists to their Subject Librarian so that online reading lists can be created for Reading Lists Online. Digital course readings will only be created by Library Services in relation to reading list items on Reading Lists Online.
More information about Reading Lists Online can be found at libguides.city.ac.uk/readinglistsonline
Reading List Policy
Reading List Policy
Research and Enterprise Strategy
City's Research and Enterprise Strategy.
Using other libraries
Information about using other libraries.
Value for Money Policy
- Authorised users
- An individual who is authorised by City to have access to the library's online resources (whether on-site or off-site) via secure authentication. In general, authorised users are likely to be current staff and students at City, however the exact terms of authorisation are governed by the licence agreement in place for each online resource and will vary from resource to resource. For confirmation as to who is an authorised user in respect of a particular online resource, please contact [email protected].
- CityLibrary Search
- The search tool available via the main search box on the Library Services website, which enables users to find a wide range of resources available, such as book titles, journal titles, DVDs, dissertations, journal articles, conference proceedings and newspaper articles.
- City Research Online (CRO)
- City Research Online is a digital repository of research and enterprise output produced by City staff and students.
- COUNTER code of practice
- 'Counting Online Usage of NeTworked Electronic Resources', an international code of practice which enables the usage of online resources to be measured and compared consistently.
- Desiderata list
- A list of items which Library Services would like to purchase, should funds become available.
- Digital course readings
- If a particular item of course material is not available in e-book or e-journal form within the collection, it may be possible for Library Services to arrange for the relevant extract to be scanned and made available to students via Reading Lists Online. The scanned extract is known as a digital course reading.
- The process of discarding physical resources, which have been removed from the collections, or physical donations which have not been accepted as part of the collections.
- Eduserv Chest
- Eduserv Chest (Combined Higher Education Software Team) negotiates contracts with suppliers to licence software or online resources to universities, colleges and other eligible organisations.
- Essential reading
- An item on a reading list which the module leader has said is mandatory reading for all students on the course.
- Full time equivalent. Numbers of full time equivalent students are published on City's Students Statistics webpage.
- Inter-Library Loan
- If a particular resource is not held within the library collection, a user may request it from another library via the Inter-Library Loan service. The user is charged for this process (normally a £3 fee) with the full cost covered by Library Services.
- JISC (Joint Information Services Consortium) Collections negotiates, manages and acquires licence agreements for online resources that are used by the academic sector.
- Journal archives
- Older issues of an e-journal title which can be purchased in addition to subscription to current issues of that journal title. A current subscription may range from one current year to more than 15 years depending on the subscription terms.
- Journal Usage Statistics Portal. This website gives access to accurate and comparable usage statistics from participating publishers. It can be used to analyse the value of electronic journal subscriptions.
- Library Academic Services Team
- The team of Subject and Research Librarians at City.
- Library Guide
- Library Guides are library webpages which contain information on different subjects or more general information on library collections and resources.
- Library Leadership Team
- A group consisting of senior members of Library Services staff at City. The Library Leadership Team is responsible for the strategic leadership and management of the Library Services.
- Library Management System (LMS)
- The software used to manage the acquisition and circulation of library collections.
- Online resources
- Resources, e.g. e-books and e-journals, which are accessed by users electronically/online.
- Perpetual access model
- A model by which an institution has the right to continue accessing electronic resources purchased during the duration of a licence, even after that licence has expired. This is similar to the way that a print book or journal, once purchased, remains the property of the purchaser. The original provider will also make a commitment to ensuring an alternative preservation service is available (e.g. Portico), if they are not continuing to offer the electronic resource themselves.
- An online resource preservation service which provides protection against the potential loss of access to online resources in the event of interruption to the service, including cancellation or change in terms by the publisher.
- Print resources
- Resources, e.g. books and journals, which are accessed by users in hard copy.
- Reading Lists Online (RLO)
- Reading Lists Online, a reading list application used by City which provides students with access to books, e-books, journal articles and websites recommended for the modules on which they are registered.
- Remote access
- Remote access occurs when a user logs into the library's online resources from a location which is off-campus.
- Users can place requests to borrow items if all the copies are out on loan, or copies are only located at a site that is not the user's preferred pick-up location.
- City's specialist Schools, which comprise academic departments, faculties, divisions and research centres.
- SCONUL Access Scheme
- A reciprocal access scheme amongst libraries that belong to the Society of College, National and University Libraries. This scheme allows library users of member libraries to borrow or use books and journals at other libraries which belong to the scheme.
- Shelf-ready items are provided by book suppliers and provide significant cost and time savings to the overall library budget. Books arrive ready to be shelved (with appropriate coverings, labels, library stamps and security tags; where possible, titles are also supplied with an accompanying catalogue record).
- Subject Librarian
- A librarian dedicated to particular subject/subjects, responsible for collection development, teaching and student support.
- Southern Universities Purchasing Consortium (SUPC) is a membership-based buying organisation for universities and further education colleges that develops and manages framework agreements. Their role is to ensure that maximum advantage is taken of the aggregated spend of their members.
- Sustainable electronic access
- The policy of ensuring online resources will continue to be accessible by users in the future. It includes safeguarding against risks such as cancellation or change in terms by the publisher.
- User-led purchasing models
- Models where purchases are initiated by the actions of the user rather than by the academic or a member of library staff, Examples may include encouraging users to recommend purchases, or implementing Evidence-Based Selection (EBS) models.
- The process of removing a resource from the library collections. This may include removing physical items from the shelves, disposing of physical items, discontinuing electronic access and deleting details of online resources.
City, University of London Library Services, revised September 2023